According to RJ Rummel, there are lots of civilians and soldiers killed from the Vietnam War between 1964 and 1975: An estimated 1,500 people died during the forced relocations of 1,200,000 civilians, another 5,000 prisoners died from ill-treatment and about 30,000 suspected communists and fighters were executed. Shelby Stanton, writing in The Rise and Fall of an American Army, declined to include casualty statistics because of their 'general unreliability.' [87], On 9 August 2012, the United States and Vietnam began a cooperative cleaning up of the toxic chemical from part of Da Nang International Airport, marking the first time Washington has been involved in cleaning up Agent Orange in Vietnam. [4], In 1995, the Vietnamese government released its estimate of war deaths for the more lengthy period of 1955–75. After China became a communist nation, fears of communism spreading to other countries became very real. How Many Elephants Were Killed In World War I? 1st Class Gary Hall and Marine Lance Cpl. The study has been criticized for its small sample size, the imbalance in the sample between rural and urban areas, and the possible overlooking of clusters of high mortality rates. American casualties included over 58,200 killed, almost 1,690 missing in action, and over 303,630 injured. There are 58,220 deaths attributed to the Vietnam War … The U.S. military has estimated that between 200,000 and 250,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died in the war. No estimate given for deaths caused by Viet Cong/North Vietnam (1954–75). Out of the 58,220 soldiers, just eight were women. OR To shorten the name list, enter 2 or more letters of any part of a name in the box below. [85], Agent Orange and similar chemical defoliants have also caused a considerable number of deaths and injuries over the years, including among the US Air Force crew that handled them. It was also called the “American War in Vietnam,” and marked the clash between Communism the Democratic Western World. White                                                                49,830, Black or African American                                  7,243, American Indian/Alaskan Native                         226, Hispanic One Race                                             349, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Island                           229, Non-Hispanic/More than One Race                    204, Asian                                                                139. Some 365,000 Vietnamese civilians are estimated by one source to have died as a result of the war during the period of American involvement.[1]. The first peace talks between the United States and North Vietnam during the Vietnam War began in. The following is a chart of all casualties, listed by race, and in descending order. The inscription reads “In memory of the men and women who served in the Vietnam War and later died as a result of their service. [53], The ARVN suffered 254,256 recorded combat deaths between 1960 and 1974, with the highest number of recorded deaths being in 1972, with 39,587 combat deaths. The World Trade Center towers burned … This group was made up almost entirely of either working-class or rural youth. About 58,209 U.S. military service people died in the Vietnam War. At the same time, China and the Soviet Union were gathering leaders, combat troops, supplies, and weapons in the north. [23] The United States government has challenged these figures as being unreliable. [28][29] It was assumed by US forces that, where an area was declared a free-fire zone that all individuals killed regardless of whether they were combatants or not, were considered enemy killed in action. Civilian deaths caused by both sides amounted to a significant percentage of total deaths. In my report I described them as so many women between fifteen and twenty-five and so many children—usually in their mothers' arms or very close to them—and so many old people." [73], The total number of casualties, both KIA and non-hostile deaths, for drafted and volunteer service personnel (figures are approximated):[74], During the Vietnam War, 30% of wounded service members died of their wounds. These records were transferred into the custody of the National Archives and Records Administration in 2008. Data for deaths in Laos is incomplete. The database also estimates combat deaths in Cambodia for the years 1967–75 to total 259,000. Guenter Lewy in 1978 estimated 1,353,000 total deaths in North and South Vietnam during the period 1965–1974 in which the U.S. was most engaged in the war. In Quảng Nam Province 4,700 civilians were killed in 1969. Danny Marshall, Marine Pvt. [72], The total number of American personnel who were KIA or died non-hostile deaths, were enlisted personnel with a casualty number of 50,441. Looking at other wars that the U.S. was involved in, the loss of life during Vietnam falls somewhere around the middle. ... 36,574 American soldiers died in the Korean conflict from 1950 to 1953 and 53,402 Americans died in World War I from 1917 to 1918. About a third of them marched on the Pentagon that night. Pentagon statistics listed 39,000 and 61,000 PRG/DRV dead for the same time period.". By November 1967, American troop strength in Vietnam was approaching 500,000 and U.S. casualties had reached 15,058 killed and 109,527 wounded. [45] The Second Marine Brigade conducted the Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre on 12 February 1968. By November 1967, the number of American troops in Vietnam was around 500,000; there were 109,527 wounded and 15,058 deaths. The 58,152 names of those who died in Vietnam are etched onto the two rising black marble slabs of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. That same year, civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. publicly opposed the war on moral grounds. On January 27, 1973, the Paris Peace Agreement was signed. [55] Based on unit surveys, a rough estimate of 30–40% of dead and missing were non-combat deaths. [11][40]:106 R.J. Rummel estimated that ARVN suffered between 219,000 and 313,000 deaths during the war including in 1975 and prior to 1960. My Lai (4) and My Khe (4) (collectively the My Lai Massacre) claimed the largest number of victims with 420 and 90 respectively, and in five other places altogether about 100 civilians were executed. Unlike those who died during the Vietnam War, those who perish during the current pandemic are unlikely to receive a national memorial. [86] The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or suffer health problems due to Agent Orange exposure. [44] In December 1966, the Blue Dragon Brigade purportedly conducted the Bình Hòa massacre. [26] The pressure to produce body counts as a measure of operational success often caused US "operations reports" to list civilians killed as enemy KIA[27] with one prominent example being the My Lai Massacre written off as an operational success. The war also spilled over into the neighboring countries of Cambodia and Laos which also endured casualties from aerial and ground fighting. These estimates probably include deaths of Vietnamese soldiers in Laos and Cambodia, but do not include deaths of South Vietnamese and allied soldiers which would add nearly 300,000 for a grand total of 3.4 million military and civilian dead. [48] According to a study conducted in 1968 by a Quaker-funded Vietnamese-speaking American couple, Diane and Michael Jones, there were at least 12 mass-killings conducted by South Korean forces which approached the scale of the My Lai Massacre with reports of thousands of routine murders on civilians, primarily the elderly, women and children. The 'shameful gamesmanship' practiced by 'certain reporting elements' under pressure to 'produce results' also shrouded the process. [17] Benjamin Valentino attributes possibly 110,000–310,000 "counterguerrilla mass killings" to U.S. and South Vietnamese forces during the war. [51] These policies are also reported by US commanders, with one US Marine General stating "whenever the Korean marines received fire "or think (they got) fired on from a village ... they'd divert from their march and go over and completely level the village ... it would be a lesson to (the Vietnamese). According to RJ Rummel, there are lots of civilians and soldiers killed from the Vietnam War between 1964 and 1975: An estimated 1,500 people died during the forced relocations of 1,200,000 civilians, another 5,000 prisoners died from ill-treatment and about 30,000 suspected communists and fighters were executed. Rummel estimates 212,000 killed by Khmer Rouge (1967–1975), 60,000 killed by U.S. and 1,000 killed by South Vietnam (1967–73). [4], Uppsala University in Sweden maintains the Armed Conflict Database. Perhaps they should. The study came up with a most likely Vietnamese death toll of 882,000, which included 655,000 adult males (above 15 years of age), 143,000 adult females, and 84,000 children. Between October 1957 and May 1975, there were 3,147 deaths from the state of Pennsylvania in the Vietnam War. "[52] Another Marine commander Gen. Robert E. Cushman Jr. added, "we had a big problem with atrocities attributed to them, which I sent on down to Saigon. [6], R. J. Rummel's mid-range estimate in 1997 was that the total deaths due to the Vietnam War totaled 2,450,000 from 1954–75. These numbers do not include civilian and ARVN military deaths result from the communist mass-internment, the refugee crisis and subsequent exodus of Vietnamese people after the Fall of Saigon. How many American soldiers died during the Vietnam War? During World War II, Japanese troops had driven the French from Vietnam and made Vietnam a … Some have pointed out that the number of lives lost in the Vietnam War has been surpassed by fatalities from COVID-19. The wide disparity among the estimates cited below is partially explained by the different time periods of the Vietnam War covered by the studies and whether casualties in Cambodia and Laos were included in the estimates. Rummel, R. J. [49][50] A separate study by a RAND Corporation employee Terry Rambo conducted interviews in 1970 in ARVN/civilian areas on reported Korean atrocities. His estimated total of civilian deaths is 587,000. Some have pointed out that the number of lives lost in the Vietnam War has been surpassed by fatalities from COVID-19. [36] Rummel's mid-level estimate includes 17,000 South Vietnamese civil servants killed by PAVN/VC. Their estimates for conflict deaths in Vietnam are 164,923 from 1955–64 and 1,458,050 from 1965–75 for a total of 1,622,973. The most prominent of these events were the Huế Massacre and the Mỹ Lai Massacre. Lewy reduced the number of Viet Cong (VC) and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) battle deaths claimed by the U.S. by 30 percent (in accordance with the opinion of United States Department of Defense officials), and assumed that one third of the battle deaths of the PAVN/VC were actually civilians. It was difficult to distinguish between civilians and military personnel in many instances as many individuals were part-time guerrillas or impressed laborer… [5], A 2008 study by the BMJ (formerly British Medical Journal) came up with a higher toll of 3,812,000 dead in Vietnam between 1955–2002. [31] There are further claims made that when air-strikes or artillery were called in on villages, usually civilian casualties were reported as "enemies killed". Military historian John Shy subsequently estimated the total killed in action at 8,000, and argued that the number of wounded was probably far higher, about 25,000. [24], Guenter Lewy estimates that around 220,000 civilians in South Vietnam were killed in US, ARVN and other allied land operations and miscounted as "enemy KIA". They included about two million civilians on both sides of the conflict, along with 1.1 million Viet Cong and North Vietnamese fighters. United States military advisers brought in active combat units in 1965; four years later, more than 500,000 U.S. troops were stationed there. [20] American bombing in Cambodia is estimated to have killed between 30,000 and 150,000 civilians and combatants. But hey wait, this was not enough. [59], RJ Rummel estimates 1,011,000 PAVN/VC combatant deaths. How Many People Are Killed By Rabies In The US? Deaths caused by South Vietnam. [79] Of the 27 million draft-age men between 1964 and 1973, 40% were drafted into military service, and only 10% were actually sent to Vietnam. MLK also led a march in Chicago on March 25, calling the war “a blasphemy against all that America stands for.”. These numbers are not official statistics and are for informational purposes only. As the Vietnam War dragged on, soldiers began to see the war as unjust and unwinnable, leading to openly mutinous behavior.By way of a “fragmentation grenade,” from which the term “fragging” was In addition, at least 36,000 Southern civilians were executed for various reasons in the period 1967–1972. He suggests that another 222,000 civilians were counted as military deaths by the U.S. in compiling its "body count." PAVN and VC deaths were reported as 1.1 million and civilian deaths of Vietnamese on both sides totaled 2.0 million. "The Vietnam Wars." The war persisted from 1955 to 1975 and most of the fighting took place in South Vietnam; accordingly it suffered the most casualties. Visiting the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall in Washington, D.C., it’s easy to overlook the names of eight women inscribed on the wall’s haunting slabs of black granite. The U.S. Military estimated that approximately 200,000 to 250,000 South Vietnamese perished in the Vietnam War. It now stands at about 17.6 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. Although the percent that died is similar to other wars, amputations or crippling wounds were 300 percent higher than in World War II. Estimates include both civilian and military deaths in North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The home front in the U.S. was shocked, and the strongest period of anti-war protests began. Who Died in the Vietnam War (1959-1975) Much more information is on the home page of The Vietnam Women's Memorial Foundation. [25] For official US military operations reports, there are no established distinctions between enemy KIA and civilian KIA, since body counts was a direct measure of operational success often caused US "operations reports" to list civilians killed as enemy KIA. [25] Official operations reports rarely made a distinction between civilians killed and actual combatants, drastically inflating the numbers of "enemies killed" as it was directly tied to promotions and commendation. Per war: 191,605 deaths/missing in the First Indochina War, 849,018 deaths/missing in the Second Indochina War (Vietnam War), and 105,627 deaths/missing in the Third Indochina War. Beilke was approaching his 40th birthday and already a master sergeant with nearly 20 years’ service when he got to Vietnam in July, 1972. [19][3] Higher estimates place the number of civilian deaths caused by American bombing of North Vietnam in Operation Rolling Thunder at 182,000. [37] About 130 American and 16,000 South Vietnamese POWs died in captivity. Two major war memorials commemorating the dead soldiers in the Second Indochina War (a.k.a. [46][47] South Korean Marines purportedly conducted the Hà My massacre on 25 February 1968. Many black men who had previously been ineligible could now be drafted, along with many poor and racially intolerant white men from the southern states. In 1965 alone they comprised 14.1% of total combat deaths, when they only comprised approximately 11% of the total U.S. population in the same year. Along with that 1,587 soldiers missed somewhere in Vietnams’ jungles. [62][63], Historian Christian Appy states "search and destroy was the principal tactic; and the enemy body count was the primary measure of progress" in the US strategy of attrition. "Making More Enemies than We Kill? [77][81], Civil rights leaders including Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, John Lewis, Muhammad Ali, and others, criticized the racial disparity in both casualties and representation in the entire military, prompting the Pentagon to order cutbacks in the number of African Americans in combat positions. C. the late 1960s. U.S. Army and marine officers knew that promotions were largely based on confirmed kills. [42] The program resulted in an estimated 26,000 to 41,000 killed, with an unknown number possibly being innocent civilians. Harper Perennial; September 1991. [34] One example cited by Turse is Operation Speedy Express, an operation by the 9th Infantry Division, which was described by John Paul Vann as, in effect, "many My Lais". [18], Estimates for the number of North Vietnamese civilian deaths resulting from US bombing range from 30,000–65,000. [55] It is unclear how the Vietnamese Government figures correlate to other reports of 300–330,000 PAVN/VC missing-in-action from the Vietnam War. In October 1966, Defense Secretary Robert McNamara initiated Project 100,000 which further lowered military standards for 100,000 additional draftees per year. South Vietnam had surrendered, and North Vietnam came in to occupy Saigon and institute their military government. [3] During the last battle of the Vietnam War, three U.S. Marines went missing: Marine Pvt. Vietnam War: 58,220. [88], Civilian and military deaths during the Second Indochina War. The Vietnam War was a long, deadly struggle that took place from 1954 to 1975 between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. Bomb Tonnages Dropped on Laos and Cambodia, and Weighing Their Implications", http://ls-tlss.ucl.ac.uk/course-materials/POLS6016_65225, http://projectsmrj.pbworks.com/f/Working+Class+War+-+Christian+Appy.pdf, "On War extra – Vietnam's massacre survivors", Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Fact & Propaganda, "Anatomy of US and South Korean Massacres in the Vietnamese Year of the Monkey, 1968 | Japan Focus", "VIETNAM KILLINGS LAID TO KOREANS (Published 1970)", "The 'forgotten' My Lai: South Korea's Vietnam War massacres", "Citizens' court to investigate Vietnam War atrocities committed by South Korean troops", "Chuyên đề 4 CÔNG TÁC TÌM KIẾM, QUY TẬP HÀI CỐT LIỆT SĨ TỪ NAY ĐẾN NĂM 2020 VÀ NHỮNG NĂM TIẾP THEO, datafile.chinhsachquandoi.gov.vn/Quản%20lý%20chỉ%20đạo/Chuyên%20đề%204.doc", "Lost Souls: The Search for Vietnam's 300,000 or More MIAs", "Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 (book review)", 3 new names added to Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall, "US Military Operations: Casualty Breakdown", "Vietnam-era unaccounted for statistical report", "Vietnam Prisoners of War – Escapes and Attempts", "Vietnam War U.S. Military Fatal Casualty Statistics", "Learning from America's Wars, Past and Present U.S. Battlefield Medicine Has Come a Long Way, from Antietam to Iraq", "African-Americans In Combat | History Detectives | PBS", "Vietnam War Bomb Explodes Killing Four Children", Vietnam war shell explodes, kills two fishermen, "Vietnam War Bombs Still Killing People 40 Years Later", "U.S. in first effort to clean up Agent Orange in Vietnam", "U.S. starts its first Agent Orange cleanup in Vietnam", "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia", "KOREA military army official statistics, AUG 28, 2005", "Australian servicemen listed as missing in action in Vietnam", https://books.google.com/books?id=qh5lffww-KsC&lpg=PA53&dq=the%20encyclopedia%20of%20the%20vietnam%20war%20page%2064&pg=PA176&output=embed, "New Zealand Rolls Of Honour – By Conflict", "Overview of the war in Vietnam | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", Vietnamese Casualties During the American war, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vietnam_War_casualties&oldid=1000411549, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, includes an estimated 50,000/65,000/70,000 civilians killed by U.S/SVN bombing/shelling, includes 360,000/391,000/720,000 civilians, 25,000/50,000/75,000 killed in North Vietnam, 106,000/164,000/227,000 killed in South Vietnam. Deaths caused by the South Korean military, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong military deaths, Disproportion of African American casualties. From these 58,209 soldiers, 47,424 died in direct armed conflict with the Vietnamese, and 10,785 died due to some other causes. [77][78] With the draft increasing due to the troop buildup in South Vietnam, the military significantly lowered its admission standards. [14][15][16], RJ Rummel estimated that American forces committed around 5,500 intentional democidal mass-killings between 1960 and 1972, from a range of between 4,000 and 10,000 killed in democide. More casualties were reported in Vietnam every day, even as U.S. commanders demanded more troops. [36], According to the Vietnamese government's national survey and assessment of war casualties (2017), there were 849,018 PAVN/VC military personnel dead, including combat death and non-combat death, from the period between 1955 and 1975. Like all wars, this long conflict led to a tragic loss of life. McNamara claimed this program would provide valuable training, skills and opportunity to America's poor—a promise that was never carried out. Two further massacres were reported by soldiers who had taken part in them, one north of Đức Pho in, 426 killed in action, 74 died of other causes, 6 missing in action (all accounted for and repatriated), This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 00:20. [35], R. J. Rummel estimated that PAVN/VC forces killed around 164,000 civilians in democide between 1954 and 1975 in South Vietnam, from a range of between 106,000 and 227,000, plus another 50,000 killed in North Vietnam. During this nearly fifteen year period, approximately 57,000 Americans died in the Vietnam War. Three of the massacres reported on the American side were not mentioned on the PRG list. In 1954, North Vietnam defeated French colonial rule and tried to unify the whole country under one communist regime. Overall, the death rate of Vietnam veterans seems to be rather consistent if not better than other people their same age, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As for the different branches, 38,224 were in the Army, 14,844 were in the Marine Corps, 2,586 in the Air Force, 2,559 in the Navy, and seven from the Coast Guard. Civilian deaths were partly caused by assassinations, massacres and terror tactics. Search and destroy was a term to describe operations aimed at flushing the Viet Cong out of hiding, while body count was the measuring stick for operation success. He suggests that another 222,000 civilians were counted as military deaths by the U.S. in compiling its "body count." 75,000 Vietnam veterans are severely disabled. Marshals; hundreds were arrested as they tried to storm the building. [30] This might partially explain the discrepancies between recovered weapons and body-count figures, alongside exaggeration, although the NVA and VC also went to great lengths to recover weapons from the battlefield. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. Accurate assessments of NV Army and Viet Cong losses, he wrote, were 'largely impossible due to lack of disclosure by the Vietnamese government, terrain, destruction of remains by firepower, and [inability] to confirm artillery and aerial kills.' Communism developed in Vietnam, splitting the country into its South and North. ~ The unemployment rate for Vietnam War Veterans was 4.8% compared to 6.2% for the rest of America. [51] Widespread reports of deliberate mass-killings were reported to have occurred, alleging that these were systemic, deliberate policies to massacre civilians with murders running into the hundreds. The Army instigated myriad reforms, addressed issues of discrimination and prejudice from the post exchanges to the lack of black officers, and introduced "Mandatory Watch And Action Committees" into each unit. World War I: 53,402. 58,148 were killed and 304,000 wounded out of 2.7 million who served. Communist North Vietnam and its allies fought against South Vietnam (the Viet Cong) and its allies, including the United States. [18][21], 18.2 million gallons of Agent Orange, some of which was contaminated with Dioxin, was sprayed by the U.S. military over more than 10% of Southern Vietnam,[22] as part of the U.S. herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971. [McCaffrey] MEDEVAC helicopters flew nearly 500,000 missions. An estimated 47,434 American soldiers were killed in battle during the Vietnam War, which spanned from 1964 to 1975. The 2nd Marine Brigade purportedly conducted the Binh Tai Massacre on 9 October 1966. Sept. 11, 2001. Furthermore there was little distinction made between armed combatants, neutral civilians and unarmed individuals for "enemy KIA". One out of every 10 Americans who served in Vietnam was a casualty. We honor and remember their sacrifice.” Since 1999, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund has held an In Memory Day ceremony each year to honor all those who died as a result of the war. The sum of those totals is 3,091,000 war deaths between 1955–75. The Deadliest Earthquakes Of The 21st Century, New Caledonia, French Territory In The Pacific, The Story Of World War II's Nazi Youth Indoctrination Camps, Reasons Why The British Were Successful In Expanding Their Empire, The Vietnam War was a long, deadly struggle that took place from 1954 to 1975 between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. A rough estimate of War deaths between 1955–75 58,148 were killed and 304,000 wounded of. ; accordingly it suffered the most prominent of these events were the Huế massacre and the Mỹ massacre. 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