They mainly eat small mammals, but will occasionally eat birds, insects, and amphibians. 1994. Fuller, K., and B. Erpelding. Formal surveys began in 1990-1991 at 6 southeastern Minnesota State Parks. Rattlesnakes can be found in almost every U.S. state. Since the late 1980s, surveys of selected den sites have documented vandalism of dens and drastic reductions in timber rattlesnake populations. An animal that has been bitten is able to run a short distance before succumbing to the effects of the venom. Prairie Rattlesnake, Western Rattlesnake, Viridis, Nuntius: Hopi Rattlesnake, Southern Pacific Rattlesnake, Viridis: Western Rattlesnake, Prairie Rattlesnake Fire can also be used to maintain open fields, but burning should only be conducted in early spring before snakes emerge from hibernation, or in late fall, after snakes have ingressed into their dens. The recovery plan spans 10 years, the timeframe in which repeated surveys should be able to determine whether a viable timber rattlesnake population occurs in Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Nongame Wildlife Program. Timber harvest within the species' summer range can also have negative effects and should be designed in consultation with Nongame staff. Minnesota is on the northwestern periphery of its range, which extends north along the Mississippi River from Illinois to Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Minnesota Herpetological Society. The following year, females give birth to around 7 live young in late August or September. Fuller, K. 2000. The number of rattle segments increases each time snakes shed their skin, about 1-3 times per year. Flickr / Andrew DuBois. It has light and dark bands on the tail. 10 pp. 92(1/2):43-48. Langley, W. M., H. W. Lipps, and J. F. Theis. The timber rattlesnake's relatively long lifespan, low reproductive rate, infrequent reproductive events, and high juvenile mortality leads to a population dominated by older age classes with variable annual recruitment (Minnesota DNR 2009). Snakes are especially vulnerable to road mortality because they freeze when they sense the vibration of an oncoming vehicle. Keyler, D. E., and J. Wilzbacher. Pope later took the 8-year-old dog to an animal hospital in Oakdale, Min., where it was determined the wound was from a rattlesnake bite. Final report submitted to the Nongame Wildilfe Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Only two snake bites are known during the history of the park. The prairie rattlesnake is North Dakota’s only venomous snakes. The buzzing sound of a timber rattlesnake's rattle is generally a diagnostic characteristic; however, other snakes will rapidly vibrate their tails when threatened, often resembling the sound of a rattlesnake.Other common names used for the timber rattlesnake include velvet tail and banded rattlesnake. (photo courtesy of Steve W. Thompson) ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR: Unlike many of their relatives, rattlesnakes are not built for speed. It is best known for the unique rings on the end of its tail that knock together and make a rattling sound. The color of the Prairie Rattlesnake varies from light brown to green, with a yellowish belly. Prairie rattlesnakes are found over much of the Great Plains, the eastern foothills and some intermontane valleys of the Rocky Mountains, from southwestern Canada through the United States to northern Mexico. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 1992. Society for the study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Circular No. The timber rattlesnake is 1 of 2 venomous snakes in Minnesota, the other being the eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus). The body ranges from greenish gray to greenish brown in colour, with dark blotches on the back and a cream-coloured underbelly. Summer habitat is used for foraging and loafing, and encompasses an area from 300 m (0.19 mi.) Timber rattlesnakes exhibit arboreal behavior throughout their range, although this behavior is not common. The prairie rattlesnake is the only venomous snakein the Canadian prairies. The timber rattlesnake occurs in the eastern and central United States. FL-Er-69-98, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, Florida. Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Badlands National Park of South Dakota. The major cause of the timber rattlesnake's decline is its vulnerability to systematic and willful destruction by humans. When approached, they may remain silent … VENOMOUS Description: 35 - 45 inches. Although the species is secretive and not aggressive, people's fear of it led to the creation of a bounty in Minnesota in 1909. Shaded sites potentially reduce reproductive success by limiting the number of days with high ground temperatures, which females need in order to incubate young. The first step in keeping both you and your pet safe from the threat of a rattlesnake bite is knowing what to look for and where to look. Timber rattlesnake specimens have been collected from 8 counties in southeastern Minnesota, but survey efforts in the late 1990s and early 2000s found that populations were substantially reduced or extirpated from several areas where they occurred historically (Keyler and Fuller 1999 PDF; Keyler and Oldfield 2003). A rattle is added to the string each time the rattlesnak… In Minnesota, dens are typically located on south and west facing slopes, which allow for warmer surface temperatures (Minnesota DNR 2009). 22. vi + 78 pp. Rattlesnake Prairie is a plain in King County and has an elevation of 974 feet. Responses of Kansas motorists to snake models on a rural highway. The massasauga is the smallest rattlesnake in Nebraska. An average litter contains about 12 young, but this can vary from 4-25. Newborn snakes remain with their mother for their first 2 weeks, but then must fend for themselves. 1989. 1998. Timber rattlesnakes typically use the same den year after year (Brown 1989), although some snakes have been found to use multiple dens within the same area (Adams 2005). However, none of these species have facial sensory pits or a rattle, their body markings are blotched rather than barred, and their pupils are round rather than elliptical. 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